WATER CRISIS IN INDIA: CAUSES-SOLUTIONS

Water Crisis in India is now a major problem in India. In recent years major cities in India are facing the acute water crisis which used to water affluent just a few years ago. But the worst water management system has led these cities to face an acute water crisis.

Water crisis in India has became a major problem and it is ever increasing
Water Crisis in India,
Source: Indian Express

India is a country that holds 18 percent of the total world’s population but having only 4 percent of total freshwater.

 In such a scenario to avoid the water crisis will be a great challenge for any nation.

Over a period of time, the careless exploitation of water has brought this country on the verse of one of the greatest water crisis in history. It will be a herculean task for the government to control the situation and provide a permanent solution.

Although the shortage of water in the country can be contributed to both natural as well as anthropogenic factors it is more due to anthropogenic factors.

World Water Development Report

World Water development Report is published by UNESCO a branch of the United Nation. The theme of the 2019 World Water Development Report is “Leaving No One Behind”.

Access to safe and affordable water is very important for poverty eradication reduces inequality, dignity, and health. Safe drinking water is also very important for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. As per the World Water Development Report 2019 currently, one-third of the world population does not have access to clean water for drinking and sanitation. And only two-fifth of the world population has access to clean drinking water.

The risk of water-related crises has double sine the 1970s. The water crisis has led to a large number of internal as well as international migration.

The demand for fresh water is increasing with the rate of 1% on year to year basis. This increased in demand is mainly due to increased population, socio-economic growth, changing consumption patterns. And this trend is likely to continue until 2050 due to socio-economic growth.

There is some section who are left behind. These groups are mainly women, girls, poor people, refugees, and displaced people. Agenda 2030 consider the availability of fresh drinking water is one of the basic human rights. The availability of fresh water should be a basic human right. The Human Right based approach advocates for the fundamental standards, principles, and criteria of the human right framework.

Causes of water crisis

Use of water by different sectors.

1. Agriculture sector: around 80 percent.

2. Industrial sector: 5-6%

3. Household: 6-7%

     So we can say that it is the agriculture sector which is most important to solve the water crisis.

      Today agriculture sector uses less water-efficient technology with little awareness among farmers. This has led to over-exploitation of surface water and groundwater.

 Another important factor for the water crisis is vanishing water bodies due to diversion of land for agriculture, industry, and urbanization. These water bodies were important for groundwater recharge and storage of rainwater.

   Pollution of water bodies is also responsible for the water crisis in India. Water bodies like river, lake, and the pond has become more and more polluted due to dumping of sewage, garbage, Etc which makes these water bodies unsuitable for use for human consumption.

Climate change and deforestation have led the monsoonal rainfall to be more irregular and lesser in amount.

the solution to the water crisis in India

1. Promoting water-efficient technologies for irrigation of farmland. Like Drip Irrigation, Sprinkle Irrigation.

2. Rejuvenation of water bodies like pond, lake, river.  Mission Kakatiya by Telangana Government is important to step in this direction.

3. Rainwater harvesting will go a long way to resolve this water crisis.  Like Rooftop rainwater harvesting, the formation of the check dam.

4. Encouraging farmers to produce less water consuming crops especially during the summer season. Like growing moong rather than maiz.

5. Encouraging people to Reduce, Reuse and Recycle the water. This will go a long way to solve the problem, especially in the household sector.

6. Green House Gas emission and Deforestation have led to weaker rainfall over a period of time which should be corrected.

7. The desalination of seawater will be another option to mitigate the water crisis in the country. A country like Israel has become a water surplus by using this technology. Though this method will consume a lot of energy still we can go for this given the present situation.  This process can be used especially for coastal areas.

National Water Policy 2012 aims to regulate groundwater exploitation but little action has been taken in that direction. It treats water as economic goods to conserve and efficient use.

 NITI Aayog with Prime Minister of India as ex-officio chairman has pointed in its Composite Water Management Index that Delhi and 21 other cities of India will be out of groundwater by 2020.

 Central Water Commission which is a technical body of government should work more effectively and proactively to regulate the use of water in the country so this problem can be solved as quickly as possible. 

10 valuable facts about water

  1. 70% of the earth’s surface is covered by water.
  2. Only 3% of the water available on earth is fresh water.
  3. Only 1 % of the Freshwater is available for human consumption.
  4. India has 4% of the total freshwater available for human consumption.
  5. 1% of growth is there in the demand of water on year on year basis due to increased population, socio-economic development and changing consumption pattern.
  6. The availability of fresh water is one of the basic human rights under Agenda 2030.
  7. Melting point of water is 100 degree centigrade.
  8. The freezing point of water is 0-degree centigrade.
  9. The PH value of freshwater of 7.
  10. The pure water is not a conductor of current.
  11. Chemical Formula of Water is H2O
Which sector consumes largest amount of water?

It is the agriculture sector that consumes the largest amount of water.

What are some possible solutions to deal with water crisis in India?

Rainwater harvesting, drip irrigation, recycle and reuse of water may help to reduce the severity of the water crisis in India

Who is responsible to maintain the water resources in India?

Central Water Commission has been made to look after the water resources in India.

Water week is celebrated in India in which month?

National water week is celebrated in India in the month of April(first week).

What is water crisis?

Water crisis is the situation when people living in the area is not getting fresh and potable water in proper amount for his daily need. This situation is known as water crisis situation.

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